Finance In Brief 

Weekly balance of the Ministry of finance�s internal debt � positive KZT105.3 mln

/IRBIS, Feb 4/

The Ministry of finance ended the sixth week of the year 2000 (January 31 - February 6) on the primary market for SS with following results. With actual repayment volume of 255.9 mln tenge (100.0 mln tenge for MEIKAM-3 #5 excluding coupons + 155.9 mln tenge � repayment of MEKKAM-3 #246) the emitter raised 361.2 mln tenge at a single auction.

Weekly balance of the Ministry of Finance�s internal debt is estimated to equal positive 105.3 mln tenge.

Full actual maturity yield of MEIKAM-3 of the fifth issue � 34.15% APR

/IRBIS, Feb 4/

Based on the schedule, on February 7, 2000 the Ministry of finance of Kazakhstan should make a coupon payment on indexed by inflation state treasury bills MEIKAM-3 of the fifth issue (KZ31L3101A03, 91 days). Nominal amount of this debt was repaid on January 31, 2000.

Fixed coupon rate of MEIKAM-3 #5 � 9.75% APR. Inflation in last three months, according to the data of the National Bank of Kazakhstan � 6.1% (November � 1.7%; December � 1.7%; January � 2.6%). Considering these data, total coupon reaches KZT8,537,500.00, which corresponds to actual yield of 34.15% APR when the issue volume is KZT100 mln.

This figure was obtained by using 91 day circulation term. If the actual number of days that passed from the issue date till the coupon payment date (97) was used, yield equals 32.04% APR.

The first productive additional session in foreign exchanges was held on KASE

/IRBIS, Feb 3/

Today on the Kazakhstan stock exchange (KASE) the next additional (day) trades in US dollar, deutsche mark and euro under the TOD accounts were held. For the first time since November 29, 1999 (date of the first additional session opening) the trades have appeared productive.

It became possible due to activity on the Exchange�s platform of the USD market maker - Bank TuranAlem.

According to its responsibilities, the market maker during all additional session maintains in trade system KASE so-called firm dollar purchase and sale quotes with a strictly regulated spread. Such market maker activity guarantees for other exchange�s members USD purchase or selling on KASE under the TOD accounts at the market prices not only during morning (main) session, which is conducted from 10:15AM till 11:00AM Almaty time, but also from 11:30AM till 3:30PM.

Today during additional trades in US dollar two participants concluded five transactions to the total sum of $1,600,000. Dollar has been traded at the price interval of 139.31 � 139.33 tenges for unit. At the session closing the dollar quotation have made 139.30/33.

The National Bank of Kazakhstan for February 5 - 8: 1USD/KZT = 139.45, 1DEM/KZT = 71.56, 1RUR/KZT = 4.81, 1EUR/KZT = 139.95

/IRBIS, Feb7/

For February 5 - 8, 2000 the National Bank of Kazakhstan has established the following exchange rates for accounting, customs and tax purposes: for 1 USD 139.45 (+0.05) tenge; for 1 DEM 71.56 (-0.02) tenge; for 1 RUR 4.81 (0) tenge; for 1 EURO 139.95 (-0.05) tenge.

Total of 33 currencies are in the list.

At KASE USD exchange rate grew due to Friday impulse

/IRBIS, Feb7/

The morning trades in US dollar, Deutsche mark and Euro were held at Kazakhstan stock exchange (KASE) with TOD payment terms. 18 banks participated in the trades.

Today the exchange market changed much and was characterized by high activity of the most of the banks. In IRBIS specialists� opinion, it was due to an impulse given by a few Friday participants to the exchange and interbank markets. By the end of last week they were able to determine by the general mood of the dealers and their tactics that the dollar is oversold a little, and the market is somewhat �short� and has a support level. In such conditions the growth of USD exchange rate could have a success. Stable, well balanced market of the dollar could be well �shaken� this time, and it has been done successfully. Precise assessment proved to be good. Traders, who were in short positions for so long, began to close them and gradually, and with some caution, buy dollars even at growing prices.

Deals made in dollars on Friday at KASE with SPOT terms (settlements on Tuesday) had a certain psychological impact on the participants. By the results of the trade weighted average rate has settled at 139.51 tenge per dollar and it was higher than the current price of the American currency on Friday.

Today the trades in US dollars opened at 139.57 tenge per unit. Total of 100 deals were made. Weighted average dollar exchange rate equaled to 139.58 (+0.19) tenge per unit. Volume of the session � $7.595 mln (+$2.205 mln). Exchange rate fluctuation during the trade �0.04%. The trades were closed at 139.59/60 tenge per dollar.

Throughout the session the dollar was traded within a quite wide 139.55/60 price interval. A number of times the exchange rate of the American currency changed its directions because of complex position game of the dealers. But, the resulting movements of the market corresponded to growing trend. Demand of BST was a little greater than supply.

Results of the trade show that dealers comprehend a speculative nature of the impulse given on Friday, and therefore, they are not in hurry to increase the demand for dollars. In current situation there are no grounds for a serious firming of the dollar. However, the trend was conceived, because it �started� on time, and the market is turning around now. Dealers weight each next step and they are very cautious. It seems as if nobody is waiting for a significant growth in the exchange rate of the dollar, since the market is still balanced. But gradual rise in the price of USD is more likely to be supported by the participants for some time.

One hour after closing of the morning session on interbank market of Kazakhstan dollar was quoted at 139.58/62 tenge per unit, two hours later � 139.59/61. In the day session of KASE with TOD payment terms at 12:30PM the dollar was at 139.56/61. Dynamics of the quotations also indicate a cautious and ambiguous attitudes of the dealers to changes in the conjuncture.

Deutsche mark, morning session, TOD: no deals. Closing offer � 71.10 tenge for mark, no demand.

Euro, morning session, TOD: no deals. Closing quotations � 136.67/139.35 tenge for euro.

Stock market capitalization for private securities of Kazakhstan as of February 4 is $2,212.6 mln

/IRBIS, Feb 4/

On February 4 stock market capitalization for corporate securities of Kazakhstan (A+B+N excluding SBS) equaled 2,212.6 mln U.S. dollars.

Capitalization decreased by $9.20 th. during the week. Decrease in capitalization was due to a slight fall in prices of common shares of OJSC �Neftekhimbank� and OJSC �GEOTEKS�.

35% growth in prices of common inscribed shares of �KAZAKHTELECOM� by the results of the week, and entering new financial instruments into the trade lists of the Exchange partially compensated for the decrease in the market capitalization.

Now 90 instruments of 68 companies and 4 state owned block of shares can be traded on the floor of KASE.

Currency market of Kazakhstan: results of the day


According to REUTERS, at closing of interbank currency market of Kazakhstan on February 4 tenge quotations towards U.S. dollar equaled 139.45/55 tenge per dollar.

Compared to the results of the previous day tenge lost 17 points against US dollar on demand and 23 points on supply. The most vivid firming of the dollar was being observed in all sectors of the market till 4:00PM Almaty time today, that is till the closing of the banking day. In last hours dollar quotations were inclined to fall.

In main (morning) session weighted average rate of the dollar with TOD terms equaled 139.39 (+0.02) tenge per dollar and closing quotations � 139.41/45.

The market participants were active in the day and evening sessions. In the day trades with TOD terms exchange rate equaled 139.45 tenge per unit with volume of the session of $300 th. closing quotations - 139.43/46.

At closing (6:00PM) of the evening trades with TOM (actual payments will be made on Monday) terms dollar was at 139.45/53 tenge per unit, but no deals were made. With SPOT (Tuesday payment) terms dollar was quoted at 139.45/54. Volume of deals with SPOT terms reached 1 mln U.S dollars.

The day left ambiguous feelings. On the one hand, activity of two banks when purchasing dollars in the morning seemed as if they want to disturb the market and �swing� it, thus changing the trend of firming tenge. On the other hand, noticeable volume of the evening session and its closing quotations indicate that the market conceived the impulse and yielded to it. Thus, it can be inferred that the banks are ready for the growth of the dollar and able to buy it at relatively high prices.

Based on these, IRBIS specialists prefer not to make a usual evening forecasts. The market is changing and it needs to be studied carefully.

Weekly volume of transactions in PIS at KASE � $3.419 mln



During the 6th week (January 31 - February 6) of this year a decrease in the activity of private issue securities (PIS) trade sector of Kazakhstan stock exchange (KASE) was observed. In five trade days total turnover shrank 4.8 times at $3.419 mln for 7 transactions made. For last week volume of 12 transactions reached $16.525 mln.

In terms of securities the volume reached 102,299 shares (13,211,039 papers - last week).

The deals were made in six instruments. The most liquid were common inscribed shares of OJSC �Voskhod� (VOCH, �Non-listing securities� sector, admission level 2). This instrument accounted for 76% of all deals in this sector.

Deals were also made in other instruments: KZMS, BTAS, GEOT, NFCH.

6 deals out of 7 were direct, that is, they were made by the brokers in Quotation system of KASE, which automatically excludes satisfaction of the bids in counter auction mode. The only deal in common inscribed shares of OJSC �Astana-finance� (ASFI, official list of securities, category �B�) was made in the main mode of the Trade system of KASE.

Exhibition Business in Kazakhstan



Every year different industrial exhibitions of products, services and new technologies are opened in Kazakhstan. They are mainly specialized international exhibitions with a high level of organization and advertising.

Today professional organizers are able to collect any exhibition exposition for several hours or some days. They pay especial attention to invite visitors. By means of direct messages to first heads, specialists and qualified visitors are attracted. Thus, average citizens are not expected to come to exhibitions.

The tradition of the international exhibitions goes back to the 19th century. In 1756 the first initiator of the official exhibition of industrial products was England. Almost in 100 years, in 1851 in London the international exhibition was opened, when the necessity to widen the market and to seek new industrial customers became obvious.

Exhibition business specialists advise companies that consider the possibility to participate in the exhibition, to pay attention to its organizers. First of all, they should clarify who is the general organizer, what is his reputation, previous experience, and the list of main clients and how it attracts visitors.

At present about six companies work in the exhibition market in Kazakhstan. We do not take into consideration companies and associations that deal with the exhibition services for the sake of momentary profit.

One of the world leaders which organize and hold international exhibitions and conferences in the new and developing markets is ITE company established in 1991. The company possesses a wide network of 18 representative offices all over the world. the exclusive partner of ITE in Kazakhstan and Central Asia is the company ITECA.

At present ITECA establishes professional Central Asian association of organizers of international exhibitions. The association will encourage the issue of the Law �On regulation of exhibition activity� and is supposed to supplement the law with a point regulating professional exhibition activity.

We should remind that taking a decision to participate in an exhibition, it is necessary to apply to professional organizers. That is why professionalism of the operator is to be the priority guaranteeing effective cooperation between the customer and producer in the exhibition market.

Sintszyan: an Absolute Secrete



From the editors: on February 14, 2000 the Soviet-Chinese agreement signed by the USSR and the People�s Republic of China, will be 50. The meeting of the leader of the two states was held in Moscow. To sign the agreement the Chinese delegation in the person of the Chinese Chairman Mao Zedong, the deputy of the Chairman Lee Fuchun and other top functionaries arrived to Moscow. The Soviet party was represented by the General Secretary Iosif Stalin, Molotov, Bulganin, Malenkov and Beria. The agreement for friendship, union and mutual assistance was signed on February 14, 1950.

Apart from the above-mentioned points the Agreement included a point, the content of which is still secrete. This point concerned the Sintszyan Autonomous Republic. According to eyewitnesses who were present when the agreement was signed, he content of the secret point was that the Sintszyan Autonomy belonging to China was to be later supervised by the USSR. The exact date when the SUAR was to be included in the USSR was 1985, according to the document. However, before 1985 the SUAR was to completely belong to China. Sergei Tihvinsky, one of the Soviet diplomats working that time in Beijing, clearly stated of the agreement. He wrote that this news had reached China, and the Chinese authorities were quite satisfied with the results of the meeting: �Lu Shaoci (the acting Chairman, as was Mao Zedong was in Moscow) was especially satisfied with the fact that during the negotiations the Chinese government�s anxiety as if the Soviet government was going to separate Sintszyan inhabited mainly by Uighurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyzs, Dungans and Mongols, from China did not justify. Recently there was a people�s rebellion of not only anti-Homindan, but also of anti-Chinese character.� (�China in my life� by S. Tihvinsky. � �Problems of the Far East� # 4, 1990).

However, if we trust to this agreement, it should have come into force in 1985. But it neither came into force, nor many people know about this point of the Soviet-Chinese agreement. THE GLOBE asked the chairman of the Eastern Turkistan Revolutionary National Front, the Academician, Doctor of History Muhlisi to comment of the event:

On February 14, 1950 Mao Zedong and Iosif Stalin, the leaders of the two states secretly considered the problem of Eastern Turkistan. Nobody saw these secrete documents for fifty years. We knew about this problem in 40 years from the publication in the magazine �Problems of the Far East�, which presented two articles � of the Chinese and Russian diplomats concerned in the signing of the agreement. Local Uighurs immediately got in touch with Moscow. They found out that the Turkistan problem indeed had been discussed and secrete documents were being kept in Moscow. Stalin stated in the point of the agreement regarding the SUAR that in 1985 Sintszyan will belong to the Uighurs.

Another fact proves this. Before the agreement was signed, the Chinese general captured Sintszyan Uan Chjin announced that Chinese people had come to Sintszyan temporarily (this announcement was published in all newspapers). He said that China wished to assist local Uighurs to raise. Lather they will leave the country. But we know this was not true. Today the Uighurian coalition wants to go to Moscow and reveal the secrete point of the Chinese-Soviet agreement. If we find the agreement, we will have the right. But before we will have to fight seriously.

We want the SUAR to belong to Kazakhstan. During the perestroyka we, the Uighurs appealed to Michael Gorbachov regarding the problem of Eastern Turkistan. He, in his own turn, ordered Nazarbaev. Nazarbaev entitled Dzholdasbekov to settle the problem.

Dzholdasbekov asked us to wait until Kazakhstan becomes a member of the UNO. However, the problem is still unsettled. At present there are about 1 million Uighurs in the world. Kazakhstani Uighurs along with their compatriots from other countries are going to leave for the USA to visit the UNO soon.

In 1996 we appealed to the UN representative office in Kazakhstan, but we did not receive any answer. We also appealed to the Chinese government, but in vain. Now we hope for the USA only.

I want to add about the condition of the Uighurian population in Sintszyan. The tragedy happened on February 7, 1997 in Kuldja proves many things. Facts published in each newspaper that �9 people killed and 200 arrested� was false. There were much more killed and arrested people that it was announced.

Law Collision: the International Law System Has no Answer

Comments by the Lawyer




Yevgeny Zhovtis, director of the Kazakhstani International Bureau on Human Rights and Observation of Laws:

During the last two years Kazakhstan ratified the Convention �On refugees� status� and the Convention �Against tortures and other kinds of brutal or inhumane and insulating the human dignity punishments.� According to these basic documents, there are international standards which are juridical responsibilities of Kazakhstan. Among these responsibilities is the protection of people who need a political asylum.

Unfortunately, in February 1999 Kazakhstan delivered up three people from SUAR to China. Later these people were sentenced to death. Thus, Kazakhstan violated the signed and ratified international conventions.

From the juridical point of view the situation in Eastern Turkistan is quite delicate. On one hand, Kazakhstan does not support separatism and concludes bilateral agreements with China in this regard. On the other hand, Kazakhstan as a subject of the international laws, is obliged to fulfill the undertaken international responsibilities.

For the total period of existence of the Law �On migration�, the President�s decree �ON order of granting a political asylum� and the two ratified international conventions, Kazakhstan has not granted any SUAR citizen a political asylum.

At present there is a collision between �the right for self-determination�, �firmness of borders� and �struggle against separatism�. The settlement of problems connected with these issues depends on the degree of country�s democracy. The urgent problem is settled either by means of dialogues and negotiations or by force.

We may understand the difficult geopolitical condition of Kazakhstan and the necessity of diplomatic maneuvers. But at the same time Kazakhstan does not observe the ratified conventions.

China is the subject to often criticism for mass infringement of human rights. Among most well-known problems of China, we may mention the opposition political activity, problems of the Tibet and SUAR. That is why China is not a democratic country. The fundamental standards of the international laws are being violated in the country, in particular, the death penalty and tortures are being often used in China.

In fact, China did not ratify any basic documents on human rights. That is why it is difficult to state that China infringes its juridical responsibilities. Anyway, the country does infringe the international standards.

Taking into consideration that China is a closed country, it is very difficult to judge on the real situation in the country. According to the Uighurian diasore, in the SUAR the Uighurian ethnic minority tries to save itself.

The establishment of Eastern Turkistan will obviously affect the principle of �firmness of borders.� China first of all refers to this moment. This creates a law collision.

The international community has not come to the conclusion on this problem. On one hand, people have the right for self-determination; on the other hand, if they apply to this right, the principle of �firmness of borders� is being infringed.

International Situation and Perspective Ways to Settle the Uighurian Problem




The fast economic development, though with great difficulties, returning of Hong Kong and Macao, the launch of the first space vehicle, entering the WTO, etc. All this is China. There is also the Uighurian problem, which is still unsettled. The Uighurian movements consider the role of the international community to settle this problem to be great.

�The international situation is so that we should not wait for help,� Yusupbek Muhlisi, the chairman of the Eastern Turkistan Revolutionary National Front (ETRNF) characterized perspective aid by the international community to settle the Uighurian problem.

Muhlisi emphasized that China had transported tens of thousands of soldiers to SUAR, while repression against the Uighurs became even tougher. So, according to the Istanbul center of researches, the total number of people killed by the Chinese authorities from January 1997 to March 1999 exceeded 1350 people.

How can they struggle for their independence under these conditions? According to Muhlisi, there are two positions in the ETRNF. One group of patriots is sure that the Kazakhstani people will support them. Others insist that they should get support by the opposition in Turkey and Central Asian countries to settle at least partially the Uighurian problem.

These words sound with despair. Let�s analyze the situation in the world. The Uighurs always expected Moscow to help them. But recently relations between Russia and China are being developing fast. Tribune newspaper commenting on Boris Yeltsin�s last visit to Beijing said that the Kremlin cynically sacrificed the Uighurian national liberation movement.

Besides, the Uighurian movements seek a support by Turkey. In autumn 1994 during his tour to Ankara, Muhlisi met leaders of the six leading political parties of Turkey. In 1978 the chairman of the Left Democratic Party Bulent Ejevit was submitted a letter. He responded that as his party won the majority in the Parliament and established the government, they would immediately settle the Uighurian problem. At present Ejevit is in the Turkish government� Hence, they need to go to Ankara again and ask for help. This is not their only hope. In 1994 ETRNF leaders participated in the UNO commission in New York. Before they sent appeals to this organization. In the beginning of the new millenium the ETRNF leaders plan to go to the UNO headquarter again�.

Open Letter

To: Eurasia members (i.e. the Internet-site Eurasia, and its owner Akezhan Kazhegeldin)

From: Nurlan Ablyazov, owner of ����� ��/THE GLOBE newspaper

Congratulations, you lied!

Sirs from Eurasia,

Recently you and your subordinates, such as the newspaper �21st century�, wrote that I had sold my newspaper. You mentioned some private details: as if I agreed to sell Dariga Nazarbaeva 35% of the newspaper for US$ 120 thousand.

Frankly speaking, I do not want to respond to this. But your lie affects my business reputation. Moreover, first thing that I faced having returned from America on February 3 was tens of questions by my friends, colleagues and advertisers: DID YOU SELL!?

I officially announce, I NEITHER SOLD NOR HAVE SOLD. I possess 100% of the business. All the rest inventions are also absolute false. So, congratulations, you lied.

By the way, I repeatedly wrote about your KNB tricks � I do not doubt that your head�s battle training is obvious. Sometimes THE GLOBE also writes about the Eurasia chief - Akezhan Kazhegeldin, about his friends, including Oleg Soskovets and one of the brothers Chornys.

By the way, eggs are usually white from outside. But from inside they are different. They may be rotten and stinking. I think you know them.

There are hen eggs and duck eggs. There are also party�s eggs and KNB�s eggs. Sometimes they are of KNB and rotten. Can you imagine what goes out of such eggs?

Now it is profitable for you to shout from behind the white cover: �He was bought!�

I admit that at first, when you began to write about me, I felt flattered. Once I was a member of Astana Group, then somebody persuaded me hard and I was so important, later a Minister was dismissed because of me. That was a minor lie. But when I saw your last figments on Internet, in a lit of temper I said: �Well, guys, I am sick and tired of your lie��

I hope, you and your subordinates will publish the refutation, as lie is always lie and becomes evident.

Sincerely yours,

Nurlan Ablyazov

P.S. By the way, your site is interesting. Obviously, you have invested a lot of money to it. But you should not lie. Is it possible having such a master?

Analysis of the Political Activity of one Party

Is There any Way-out for the Opposition and the Kazakhstani People?

RPPK as the Mirror of the Kazakhstani Opposition

Akezhan Kazhegeldin: Governing the Country by Fax




Kazhegeldin�s Republican People�s Party of Kazakhstan was infected with the same disease that did the interrelations between all Kazakhstani opposition parties, i.e. split and disconnection. According to the opposition, the reason for their split is their selfishness and jealousy. They fear that somebody may be ahead of them. Everyone wants some profit at once. All these wonderful human features prevent them from uniting. This egoism prevents them to climb upstairs to see the mountains, and the goal that they strive for.

In the most decisive moment our opposition fails to agree, to cooperate and to unite to concentrate their forces to make a final strike. Or, at least to achieve any primary positive results.

The leader of the Kazakhstani opposition is infected with split, degrading from inside. It appeared that the mass scandalous breaking off of the party�s activists L. Baiseitova, V. Voronov along with their comrades was a ballyhoo that reminded the society of the existence of RPPK.

This maneuver was possibly the result of the split. But we may agree that it was profitable as an advertising. But this advertising did not gain any positive results.

Common members of the party, not to speak of common voters, do not know and cannot get in touch with the chief to ask him about methods of the struggle and to share their thoughts or to express their disagreement or a claim. The leader�s body is inaccessible.

Contradictions inside the party at the decisive moment are sometimes funny and sad, sometimes tragic. On August 10, 1999 members of the Karagandy RPPK subsidiary B, Mukushev, S. Kotlyarov, G. Ozorovsky, R. Pak, A. Rychkov, V. Salanin, V. Svintsov appealed to the distant chief A. Kazhegeldin with the abrupt appeal on the party�s critical condition in regions. According to the appeal, the party�s executive committee cannot settle the current problems, either minor or major ones. That means that the committee is not able to settle them at all.

Oblast subsidiaries are not financed. This happens in the hottest, tensed moment of the pre-election struggle. Subsidiaries have debts, but no money.

Subsidiaries� activity is stopped. The story resembles to the bad trick. Comrades who believed are tricked, or it is better to say that they made a mistake having believed. They did not know for whom they worked. It was impossible to know, as the leader was abroad. RPPK stopped to finance its subsidiaries when the party was struggling for seats in the parliament. Does anybody doubt that Kazhegeldin has money? Otherwise the RPPK leader had not established the party.

Further the document provides: �in connection with the unsettled problems, the Karagandy oblast subsidiary rejects to cooperate with the party�s political center.� The subsidiary activists are going to withdraw Kazhegeldin from the post of the party�s chairman and to appeal other regional organizations to support their positions. Members of the party do not want to work with their leader any longer due to numerous tricks. Hence, they separate.

The situation is difficult. A man established the party pursuing his personal, selfish ends. Now his own creation, his party seizes him announcing that it does not need him. Numerous appeals by heads of oblast subsidiaries prove also that RPPK faces contradictions of its staff policy. Contradictions between activists of subsidiaries and the executive committee prevents them from further development and even weakens it. They prevent it from opposing the external obstacles. The party destroys its immunity itself.

The opposition is a glass-window, behind which there is nothing. Kazhegeldin is quite able to play a role of an opposition member to impart the ruling regime with respectfulness and democracy.

Anyhow, whether the RPPK leader is erring purposefully or sincerely, but the tactics that he applies to gain the Presidential throne or Parliamentary seats fails. And it confuses the opposition. All his efforts may neutralize the opposition. It happens so that we have the opposition, but in fact it cannot do any harm to the authorities.

Possibly, Kazhegeldin is interested in RPPK only during the election campaign. When election is over, he is indifferent to it. He disappears from the political horizon, being slightly interested in affairs of his motherland.

Possibly, Akezhan Kazhegeldin thinks that he can easily get the Presidential throne. If there are any mass unrest in Kazakhstan, and the present regime is under threat, and the threat to Kazhegeldin �ceased�, he will come on the protest wave to become the ruler.

Kazhegeldin applies to the tactics of minor money. Probably, he supposes that he can buy the throne at three kopecks very fast.

His threats with compromising materials cannot help as well. Kazhegeldin keeps the real information, as along with the information compromising the regime, the information of his affairs and business may come. Then his respectful suit of an opposition member and a democrat may disappear and the king will become naked.

All Over the Globe is published by IPA House.
© 1998 IPA House. All Rights Reserved.